Q 1. Why pest issues are most critical at food processing units. .
Pest both living and dead form with food is a physical hazard and can have disastrous outcome to brand and business. An effective pest management program is requirement of FSSAI in India and GFSI globally like HACCP, FSSC 22000, HACCP, AIB, BRC etc. Pest Management is mainly component of prerequisite programs which are considered for risk assessment of potential hazard to materials and process.
Disinfestation Specialist partners with its customers to design pest management plan based after analyzing all critical control points of exclusion and eliminations which are assessed at defined frequency necessary actions were taken as per set guidelines. Documentation is key part which requires evidences with proof were maintained as below.
- Area wise inspection report with findings
- Pest proofing measures with before and after assessment reports.
- Pest management plan
- Pesticides used location and method of application.
- Location map of pest bait and traps stations.
Q 2. Why pest baits and traps remain ineffective in most cases.
Any kind of baits have to be consumed by target pests as these are stomach poison and have to undergo necessary reactions inside the body to have desired effects. Effectiveness of baits depends upon on how quickly it can attract target organism towards it and get consumed, which happens only when attractants in it were not contaminated by odor or dust. Baits like rodent cakes, cockroach baits, fly baits often get mixed with pesticides and dusts during storage, transportation and applications make it uneatable and useless. Unintentional contamination happens due to improper storage and handling process by technicians handling storage and applications operations. As baits didn’t get consumed and other treatments too were not carried out pest infestation levels increases abruptly. Disinfestation Specialist ensures that baits and glue traps are not contaminated with any pesticides from storage to applications by following precautions like.
- Separate storage of baits and glue traps from other pesticides during storage.
- Usage of separate carrier bags by technician while carrying baits and traps to application site.
- Baiting and pesticide emulsion spraying carriedout separately to avoid contaminations.
- Usage of hand gloves while application of baits and glue traps to avoid any contaminations.
Q 3. What are the different types of comonly used pesticide formulations for household pest disinfestations.
Active ingredients which are the pure technical material of pesticides were mixed and diluted with other materials like carrier, stickers, spreaders, stabilizers etc, which increases the pesticide efficacy during storage, handling and application. Effectiveness of any disinfestation treatment depends upon usage of correct pesticide formulations, way of applications and equipment used for applications.
|EC- Emulsifiable Concentrate
|Good chemical stability but smelly due to presence of volatile compounds, Best suited for outdoor areas only.
|SC- Suspension Concentrate
|Safe, water based and user friendly and can be used at indoor areas too due but have to shake well as active ingredient tends to settle down.
|WP- Wettable Powder
|High residual actions but difficult to mix in spray pump
|RTU- Ready to Use
|These formulations can be used directly without any mixing but as stomach poison has to be kept contamination free.
|ULV- Ultra Low Volume
|Aerial treatment and can’t be carried out at inside areas
|CS- Capsule Suspension
|Advance molecules with delayed release of active ingredient effective for longer durations.
Q 4. What are various documentation required for food safety audits at food processing units.
Documentation are integral part of all food safety audits and evidence with proofs of treatments done have to be compiled along with legal and statutory requirements of pest control firm and operators. Disinfestation Specialist comply with all requisites like.
- Vendor agreement with scope, service specifications and liabilities.
- Vendor licenses for eligibility to carry out treatments.
- Training records of operators carrying our services with PF/ ESIC/ Insurance covers.
- Pest Management Treatment Plan with frequency of treatments, pesticides and consumables.
- Material Safety Data Sheets for any pesticides used with antidotes details.
- Area specific documentary evidences of treatment carried with consumption details.
- Location maps for Rodent Stations, Insect Fly Catchers with numbering.
- Monthly pest proofing and preventive assessment reports.
- Monthly pest monitoring reports on pest trapped and action plan to prevent sudden surge of pests.
- Disposal records of pests trapped, empty pesticide containers.
- Records of joint training conducted with vendor on pest proofing and preventive measures and their effectiveness
Q 5. What are the different types of cold fogging and thermal fogging.
Fogging is a technique by which pesticides are released in environment to control flying insects mostly mosquitoes and other flying insects. Thermal foggers use heat to vaporize pesticides into a visible cloud while Cold foggers use pressure to break up the liquid into tiny droplets into invisible fog. Thermal fogging has the disadvantage of moving away along with wind and polluting the environment in comparison to Cold fogging which particle size is larger ( minimum 2 micron) far effective as it settles down on surfaces and use water as medium which make it environment friendly.
Q 6. How used pesticide containers were disposed.
Used pesticide containers reuse has been a critical problem in India leading to severe poisoning issue. Even though manufacturer, distributor and operator need to dispose without creating any environmental issue and water pollution, most of used empty container end up in scrap dealers and innocent people using as drinking water bottles too. Till any registered disposal vendors were found minimum precautionary measures should be taken like.
- All empty containers are washed using triple rinse method.
- Empty containers to the lowest possible level.
- Containers were filled with water to 25% of capacity.
- Containers were rinsed three times.
- Residual solutions are emptied into the spray pump for further usage.
- The empty containers are broken and buried away from habitation.
Q 7. What is the most effective disinfestations time for household pests.
Timings of pesticide applications has always been a topic of controversy as every pests have their own peak activity period depending upon food and surrounding environment. In nutshell, Following can be summarized.
|Peak Activity Time
|Best time to kill
|Usually done at morning but best time is during afternoon when they rest at shady place to rest in congregation.
|When they became active to eat flying insects
|Night, dark hours
|Night time for more visibility
|Night, dark hours
|Traps should be placed during daytime
|Evening time except Aedes, which became active during morning too.
Q 8. What kind of treatment were carried out against virus outbreak like Corona/ Swineflu etc
Disinfection treatment were carried out against viruses like Corona / SARS/ Swine flu etc which can easily spread through when sick people sneeze or cough or come in contact with sick people. Broad spectrum antimicrobial sanitizers were applied in ambient air by fogging and surfaces by spraying . Treatment were carried out at hospitals, conference rooms, office rooms where people aggregate. Efficacy of treatment can be determined by taking microbial count before and after the treatment.
Q 9. What are best prevention methods for stored products insects at grain processing units.
- Avoid stacking any materials inside plant area as infestation can develops quickly
- Final products should not be stored more week at packaging areas and FIFO should be followed to accumulation of any food products.
- Avoid blockages / leakages in equipment’s to prevent development of insects.
- Bins should be disinfested on monthly basis.
- Thorough cleaning of shifters on fortnightly basis and disinfestation of connecting pipes and shifters.
- Prophylactic treatment should be carried inside the plant on fortnightly basis.
- Empty running of plant on weekly basis for minimum 3 to 4 hours to prevent accumulation of any materials.
- Cleaning operations in the plant should be carried out with vacuum cleaners only as air pressure &brushing spreads insects eggs to other areas.
- Temporary sealing materials like cloths and tape should be replaced with permanent sealing as insects breed in between.
- Clothes below sieve should be replaced every month.
Q 10. What is the mode of action of fumigant and recommended dosage.
Fumigants are respiratory poison and insects get killed due to lack of oxygen in enclosed environment. Due to high penetrability fumigant can enter insects stages which are dormant orless active like eggs and pupae. Unlike other pesticides, fumigant doesn’t leave any residue behind after gas tight enclosures were opened and proper aerations done. In India, only two fumigants are registered for use, Aluminium Phosphide which can be used for both domestic export cum import purpose and Methyl for export import purpose only.
|Food items/ Silos/ Space
|9 gm, 12,gm/ MT
|Copper / Brass
|Food items / Veg/ Flowers
|32 gm/ 48 gm/80 gm/Cum
|Oil/Sulphur based etc
Q 11. How to get rid of pesticides from fruits & vegetables surface before consumption.
- A solution of 10% white vinegar and 90 % water and soak for 20 minutes and rinse with plain water.
- One tea spoonful of salt or baking soda in liter of water and soak veggies for 2-5 minutes and fruits for 30 minutes.
- Blanching a process where food item is immersed in hot water followed by cold water.
Information Blogs & Links
- Pest Manangemet Program – Click here to open file
- Pest Prevention by Design – Click here to open file
- Pest Prevention Practices at Food Processing Facilities – Click here to open file
- Benchmarking on Good Fumigation – Click here to open file
- Creal Protection – Click here to open file
- Documentation of Pest Management Treatments – Click here to open file
- Pest Control Procedures in Food Industry – Click here to open file